Antibiotic Resistance and Antimicrobial Stewardship

GUIDE TO INFECTION CONTROL IN THE HEALTHCARE SETTING

It is estimated that 700,000 people globally die from drug-resistant infections yearly. Unless major actions are taken this number is projected to rise to 10 million yearly by 2050 at an economic impact of 100 trillion dollars per year. This chapter summarizes facts, controversial issues and suggested practices to control the emergence of drug resistance in the healthcare setting.

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The inappropriate use of antimicrobials in human medicine is widespread. This has a direct impact on antimicrobial resistance, one of the greatest threats to global health, food security, and development today. This chapter summarizes the principals of antimicrobial stewardship to optimize clinical outcomes while minimizing unintended consequences of antimicrobial use, including toxicity, the selection of pathogenic organisms (such as Clostridium difficile), and the emergence of resistance.

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The microbiology laboratory plays an important role in the surveillance, treatment, control and prevention of nosocomial infections. This chapter summarizes the role of the microbiologist in the hospital infection control committee and antimicrobial stewardship group, the technical revolution taking place inside the hospital microbiology laboratory, and its importance in disease surveillance, notification and outbreak management.

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