Two to five percent of patients undergoing surgical procedures suffer from surgical site infections (SSIs). These infections cause significant patient morbidity and mortality and burden healthcare systems with immense costs. SSIs are the second most common cause of healthcare-associated infections but the most frequent in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). In high-income countries (HICs), SSIs are the second most common type of adverse event among hospitalized patients, only surpassed by medication errors, and are the most frequent cause of readmissions. Because SSIs are primarily acquired during the surgical procedure while the wound is open, a number of infection control practices merit scrutiny in the operating room (OR). With the advent of minimally invasive surgery, the importance of infection control measures in the OR is much debated. The measures presented in this chapter address environmental and surgical issues as well as some patient-related factors which are implemented once the patient is in the OR.
Preparation of the Surgical Team and of the Surgical Field
Patient Issues in the Operating Room