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International Journal of Infectious Diseases: Volume 3, Number 3
Amorn Leelarasamee, MD; Chertsak Dhiraputra, MD; and Saowalak Hunnangkul, MMSc

Int J Infect Dis 1999; 3: 147-152.

Objectives: To determine clinical manifestations, prognostic factors, and therapeutic outcomes of severe pneumococcal infection. Methods: Hospitalized patients with specimens cultured positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae were identified retrospectively by reviewing hospital records from 1992 to May 1998 at Siriraj Hospital. Results: Of 205 evaluable cases, 130 (63.4%) patients were male. Nineteen (9.3%) patients were less than 2 years old, 29 (14.1%) were between 2 and 13 years, 99 (48.3%) were between 14 and 60 years, and 58 (28.3%) were over 60 years of age. From 1992 to 1997, the average admission rate was highest (36.4%) between January and March (range = 20-45%). Average admission rates during other periods ranged from 20.0% to 23.1%. Pneumonia (50.7%) and acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or infected bronchiectasis or bronchopneumonia (21.0%) were the most frequent diagnoses, followed by meningitis (14.6%) and primary sepsis without localized lesion (8.3%). The mortality rate during the first 7 days of hospitalization was 28.8%, and thereafter, 11.7%. The odds ratios (95% CI) of old age, congestive heart failure, and alcoholism for death were 3.4 (1.4-8.2), 8.6 (0.97-76.1), and 8.0 (3.1-20.9), respectively. For pneumonitis only, mortality rates among alcoholic and nonalcoholic patients were 76.9% and 39.6%, respectively (P = 0.025). Conclusions: Patients who were alcoholic, over 60 years of age, or had congestive heart failure were vulnerable to severe pneumococcal infection with significant mortality, in spite of proper selection of empirical antimicrobials. Diabetes mellitus and multiple myeloma also contributed to late mortality after 7 days of hospitalization.

KEYWORDS: alcoholism community-acquired septicemia, meningitis, penicillin-resistant, pneumococcal infection, pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Thailand, vaccination

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